Grand Union: This flag was authorized by the Second  Continental Congress in 1775 and featured the British Union Jack as well as a field of 13 red and white stripes representing the 13 colonies ... The symbolism apparently carried a double message -- loyalty to Great Britain but unity of the American colonies Table of Contents = Civilizations -- Cultures -- Areas -- Regions -- Prehistory / Excerpts / Other Archaeological Sites
The Neolithic of the Levant (503 Pages Type Written) or DIGITISED THESIS: PDF (1) (2) HTML (Volume 1) (Volume 2)

The History of the Ancient Near East

Electronic Compendium

ANCIENT ISRAEL IRAQ EGYPT TURKEY IRAN SYRIA
LEBANON JORDAN ARABIA CYPRUS AND BAHRAIN

(December 12th 2019) Todays Research Interest:

The Habiru -- Hapiru -- Apiru

http://ancientneareast.tripod.com/Habiru.html

Habiru (sometimes written as Hapiru and more accurately as Apiru) is a term used in 2nd-millennium BCE texts throughout the Fertile Crescent for people variously described as rebels -- outlaws -- raiders -- mercenaries -- bowmen -- servants -- slaves and laborers (1)

(2) Apiru and the Hebrews: The Settlement of the Israelite Tribes in Palestine
by Manfred Weippert (1971) [Google Books]

http://ancientneareast.tripod.com/PDF/Weippert_Apiru_and_the_Hebrews.pdf

(3) The Hebrew Conquest of Palestine by George Mendenhall
in the Biblical Archaeologist (1962) Pages 65-87

I. Mendenhall's bold counter-suggestion to the prevailing settlement theories (II 3) hangs, on closer inspection, by a slender thread; namely his identification, taken by him as self-evident and basically presupposed, of the 'hab|piru' attested in ancient Near Eastern texts since the days of the old Assyrian trading colonies in Asia Minor with the biblical 'Hebrews' (ibrīm) who, for their part, are equated just as questionably with the 'Israelites' (benē yiśrā'ēl). If Mendenhall's sociologically based equation is correct then we need concern ourselves no further with the question whether the ‘Israelites' before the settlement in Palestine were 'nomads' or 'semi-nomads'. This question would be answered in the negative for the 'hab|piru' according to the unanimous testimony of all the texts in which they appear were not a population group of a 'nomadic' or 'semi-nomadic' type. For the time being therefore the nomad question can be completely excluded from our discussion. Much more important is the question whether too much is not being demanded of the equation 'hab|piru' = ibrim (achieved in my opinion primarily on linguistic or even emotive

grounds) if it is required to bear the weight of a detailed hypothesis of the Israelite settlement as a great victorious peasants' revolt against the feudal system of the ruling classes of the cities. In criticizing Mendenhall's hypotheses therefore we must give a definition of the term 'hab|piru' which is faithful to the textual material available then compare this term with that of 'Hebrew' (ibrī) in the Old Testament and discuss the evidence both of linguistic usage and of the content of the terms for and against their identification.

2. This problem has kept scholarship busy ever since the discovery of the ha-BI-ru in the letters of king ĪR-Heba of Jerusalem in the Amarna archives. In this connection we can refrain from examining individually all the theses and opinions produced since 1888 since the discoveries of the last decades have made many of the older positions no longer tenable. With the publication and uncovering of the rich finds of clay tablets from the ruins of the Hittite capital Hattuša (modern Boğazköy) the proof was produced in the twenties for Winckler's supposition that the Sumeriogram SA.GAZ, which according to the lexicographical lists has the reading habbatu(m) 'robbers' (and 'itinerant workers'), is to be read in the Akkadian (and Hittite) texts of the Hittite and Syro-Palestinian state offices usually, even if not exclusively, 'hab|piru'. In the year 1939 it became clear beyond all doubt that the consonantal element of the word ha-BI-ru, which could not be unambiguously determined from the cuneiform script, had to be established as '-p-r, whereby at least all etymologies dependent on the root *HBR were excluded and corresponding attempts with *BR and the ibrim became dubious. In what follows therefore

we can always take as our basis the form *apiru and examine the meaning of the word unencumbered by hypotheses which have been superseded because they are linguistically impossible.

3. It is nowadays fairly generally recognized that the apiru who appear in numerous places from Mesopotamia to Egypt via Asia Minor -- Syria and Palestine in the period between approximately 2000 and 1200 BC are not a 'people' -- that is a relatively unified entity with much in common linguistically, sociologically and culturally -- but an 'international' class of men; a social stratum which, in the stratified society of the Middle and Late Bronze Age, plays anything but a leading role. I have already indicated above in my exposition of Mendenhall's theory of the settlement that the word apiru is best rendered by 'outlaw'. In our context the term is to be taken primarily in a sociological sense implying also, of course, legal distinctions. Applied to the apiru class it designates with a kind of loose dependence on the etymology of the English word, a person who for some reason or another stands outside the acknowledged social system and thereby dispenses with the legal protection which the community guarantees to all its members. This definition of the term apiru occasionally appeared in earlier discussions in one form or another and it is to the credit of

Mendenhall that he has defined it in this way within the context of his treatment of the Israelite settlement. In order to fit in with his conversion hypothesis however Mendenhall is obliged to lay too great an emphasis on the voluntary nature of the existence of the apiru. It seems to me that entry into this category of classless individuals must normally, as the texts seem to indicate between the lines, have been experienced as a misfortune, just as in the few cases in which we can observe the process of exclusion from ‘middle-class society', external pressure is the cause not free choice ...

(1) The Mysterious Habiru from Israel-a-history-of.com

(2) Apiru and the Hebrews: The Settlement of the Israelite Tribes in Palestine
by Manfred Weippert (1971) [Google Books]

(3) The Hebrew Conquest of Palestine by George Mendenhall
in the Biblical Archaeologist (1962) Pages 65-87


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Map of the Ancient Near East Before The Coining Of The Phrase -- From The National Geographic Magazine (1916)
Map of the Ancient Near East Before The Coining Of The Phrase
From The National Geographic Magazine (1916) --- 1542 x 1062

Table of Contents

Civilizations -- Cultures -- Areas -- Regions -- Prehistory

Culture: Egypt, Canaan and Israel in Ancient Times
The Coming of the Sea Peoples (Donald Redford)

Understanding the Sea Scrolls (Hershel Shanks)
Chapter 6: Essene Origins -- Palestine or Babylonia

Area or Region: PreHistoric Near East / Mesopotamia
Levant (Mashriq) / Anatolia / Lisan Lake

Mesopotamia: Jazirah - Jazireh - Yazirah / Sumer - Shinar
Akkad - Accad - Agade / Old Babylonia Empire / Assyria - Subartu
Neo-Babylonian Empire or Chaldea / Hurrian - Mitanni

Levant: Canaan or Palestine / Esdraelon / Dead Sea / Wadi Arabah
Hebrews / Samaria / Israelites / Philistines - Philistia / Phoenicia
Arameans / Bit-Adini / Nabateans / Ammonites / Edomites / Moabites

Zagros Mountains and Iran: Guti / Lullubi / Kassites
Parthia / Persia / Elam - Susiana / Media - Medes

Africa: Egyptian History / Egyptian Art and Civilization / Hyksos / Nubia

Anatolia (Turkey) [Asia Minor]: Hittites / Lycia / Phrygia / Lydia

Arabian Peninsula: Arabia / Amorites

TransCaucasus: Urartu - Ararat /Armenia / Kurdistan

CisCaucasus: Cimmerians / Scythians

Mediterranean Island: Cyprus

Persian Gulf Island: Bahrain Archipelago

Prehistoric and Cultural Type-Sites

PALEOLITHIC SITES

TABUN CAVE (ISRAEL) / JEBEL QAFZEH CAVE (ISRAEL) /
MUGHARET SKHUL CAVE (ISRAEL) / AMUD CAVE (ISRAEL) /
SHANIDAR CAVE (IRAQ) / MUGHARET WAD CAVE (ISRAEL) /
YABROUD (YABRUD) CAVE [SYRIA]

MESOLITHIC OR EPIPALEOLITHIC SITES
On the Difference Between These Two Terms Read
THE MESOLITHIC OF THE LEVANT

WADI NATUF (ISRAEL) / AIN MALLAHA (ISRAEL) /
ZAWI CHEMI SHANIDAR (IRAQ) / KARIM SHAHIR (IRAQ) /
KEBARA CAVE (ISRAEL) / JERICHO (ISRAEL) /
TELL ABU HUREYRA (SYRIA) / ZARZI CAVE (IRAQ)

NEOLITHIC AND CHALCOLITHIC TYPE-SITES

1. PPNB TAHUNIAN PERIOD (PALESTINE) [7TH MILLENNIUM BC]
2. JARMO (NORTHEASTERN IRAQ) [7TH MILLENNIUM BC]
3. CATAL HOYUK (ANATOLIA) [6700 - 5650 BC]
4. DABAGHIYAH CULTURE (NORTHERN IRAQ PLAIN)
5. HASSUNAN CULTURE (NORTHERN IRAQ) [5750 - 5050 BC]
6. YARMUKIAN CULTURE (ISRAEL/JORDAN) [5600 - 5000 BC]
7. HALAF CULTURE (NORTHERN IRAQ) [5500 - 4700 BC]
8. SAMARRAN CULTURE (NORTHERN IRAQ) [5500 - 4800 BC]
9. BADARIAN CULTURE (EGYPT) [5000 - 4000 BC]
10. ERIDU PERIOD (SUMER) [FIRST PHASE PROTO UBAID]
11. HAJJI MUHAMMED PERIOD (SECOND PHASE PROTO UBAID)
12. PRE-LITERATE UBAID CULTURE (MESOPOTAMIA)
13. TELEILAT GHASSUL CULTURE (URBANISM) [JORDAN]
14. AMRATIAN CULTURE (NAQADA I) [EGYPT] (4000 - 3500 BC)
15. TEPE GAWRA PERIOD (NORTH MESOPOTAMIA) [CONTEMPORARY URUK]
16. URUK (ARABIC WARKA) [BIBLICAL ERECH] (PROTO URBAN PERIOD)

17. GERZEAN CULTURE (NAQADAH II) [EGYPT] (3500 - 3100 BC)
18. JEMDET NASR PERIOD (SOUTHERN MESOPOTAMIA) [3100 - 2900 BC]

Major Historic Sites

1. JERUSALEM (JEBUSITE) [CANAANITE] (ISRAEL)
2. NINEVEH (ASSYRIA) [KUYUNJIK PALACE]
3. BABYLON (BABIL) [TOPONYM] (IRAQ)
4. PERSEPOLIS (TOPONYM PERSIA) [IRAN]
5. ALEPPO (TRADE CROSSROADS) [SYRIA]
6. LACHISH (SENNACHERIB) [ISRAEL]
7. THEBES (MODERN LUXOR) [AMON-RE] (EGYPT)
8. PETRA (NABATEAN CAPITAL) [JORDAN]
9. EBLA (TELL MARDIKH) [SYRIA]
10. MARI (TELL HARIRI) [MIDDLE EUPHRARTES] (SYRIA)
11. PALMYRA (TADMOR) [SYRIA]
12.ASHUR (QALAT SHARQAT) [TOPONYM ASSYRIA] (IRAQ)
13. SUSA (BIBLICAL SHUSHAN) [ELAMITE CAPITAL] (SW IRAN)
14. ALEXANDRIA (EGYPT) [PTOLEMIES] (BIBLIOTECA)
15. HATTUSAS (MODERN BOGAZKOY) [ANATOLIA] (TURKEY)

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Der Tempel von Edfu um 1865 -- Photographer: Zangaki (Universität Hamburg)
Der Tempel von Edfu um 1865 -- Photographer: Zangaki (Universität Hamburg)

Other Archaeological Sites

ISRAELI SITES

SITE 8/17 / AKKO (ACCO) [ACRE] / AELIA CAPITOLINA / AFEK [APHEK] (ANTIPATRIS) / AI (ET TELL) / AHWAT / TELL AJJUL / ANAFA / ARAD / ATLIT YAM / AVDAT / BANIAS (CAESAREA PHILIPPI) / BEERSHEBA / BEISAMUN / BETHEL / BETHSAIDA / BETH SHAN / BETH SHEMESH / CAESAREA MARITIMA / CAPERNAUM (KEFAR NAHUM) / MOUNT CARMEL / DAN (QADI) / DOR / DOTHAN / FARAH NORTH / GEDI / GEV / GEZER / GILGAL / ABU GOSH / GRAR / HALIF (KIBBUTZ LAHAV) / HALUTZA / HAR HARIF / HARASIM (NAHAL BARKAI) / HASEVA (HATZEVA) / EGLON (HASI) [HESI] / HAYONIM / HAZOR (QEDAH) / HEBRON / NAHAL HEMAR CAVE / IFSHAR (HEFER) / IRAQ BARUD / JAFFA (YAFO) [AVIV] / KFAR GILADI QUARRY / KHIAM / MAGDALA (MIGDAL) [MAJDAL] / MARESHA (GUVRIN) [ELEUTHEROPOLIS] / MASADA / MEGIDDO / MUNHATTA / MUQATIR / NABLUS (FLAVIA NEAPOLIS) / NASBEH / NATIV HAGDUD / NAZARETH / NAHAL OREN / NAHAL POLEG / WADI QUMRAN / WADI RABAH / RAKAFET / REHOV / ABU SALEM / SHAAR HAGOLAN / SHECHEM / SHIKHIN (ASOCHIS) / SHIQMIM / SILWAN (SHILOAH) [SILOAM] / TANAACH / TANTURA LAGOON / TELULIOT BATASHI / TIBERIAS / NAHAL TILLAH / TIMNA / YAQUSH / YAVNEH YAM / ZAYIT (ZEITAH) / ZIPPORI (SEPPHORIS)

PHILISTINE PENTAPOLIS

ASHDOD (AZOTUS) / ASHQELON (ASHKELON) /
EKRON (MIQNE) / GATH (SAFI) / GAZA

IRAQI SITES

ADAB (BISMAYAH) / AGRAB / RAS AMIYA / ARPACHIYAH / ARRAPHA (KIRKUK) / BORSIPPA (BIRS NIMRUD) / CALAH (NIMRUD) / DIYALA VALLEY / ERBIL (IRBIL) / ESHNUNNA (ASMAR) / HAFRIYAT / HATRA / Hīt / ISIN (BAHRIYAT) / KHABUR VALLEY / KHORSABAD (DUR SHARRUKIN) / KISH (UKHAIMIR) / DUR KURIGALZU (AQARQUF) / LAGASH (TELLOH) [GIRSU] (HIBA) / LARSA (SENKEREH) / MATARRAH / MOSUL (MAWSIL) / NIPPUR (NIFFER) [NUFFAR] / NUZI (YORGHAN TEPE) / SAWWAN / SHADUPPUM (HARMEL) / SHURUPPAK (FARA) / SIPPAR / TAYA / TUTUB (KHAFAJE) / UMMA (JOKHA) / UQAIR / UR (MAQAYYAR)

EGYPTIAN SITES

ABOUKIR (HERAKLEION) / ABUSIR / ABYDOS (ABDJOU) [THIS] / ADAIMA / AMARNA / ARMINNA / AVARIS (RAAMSES) [DABA] / ASWAN (SVENE) / ASYUT / BEHNASA (OXYRHYNCHUS) / CAIRO (QAHIRA) / DASHUR NORTH / EDFU (BEHDET) / FAIYUM DEPRESSION / ABU GHURAB / GIZA (JIZAH) / HAWARA / HELWAN (HULWAN) / HERR / HIERAKONPOLIS (NEKHEN) / IBRAHIM AWAD / MOUNT HAR KARKOM / KARNAK / KELLIS (ISMANT KHARAB) / MAHGAR DENDERA / DEIR MEDINA / MEDINET HABU / MEIDUM / MEMPHIS / MENDES / QUSEIR (QADIM) / SAQQARA / JEBEL SILSILA / ABU SIMBEL / SINAI PENINSULA / SIWA OASIS / SUEZ

TURKISH SITES

ALACA HOYUK / AMUQ VALLEY / ANKARA (ANGORA) / BAKLA TEPE / BAYBURT KELKIT PLAIN / BUYUK TEPE HOYUK / CARCHEMISH (JERABLUS) / CAYONU TEPESI / CHOMA (HACIMUSILAR) / DHAHAB / EDESSA (URFA) / GOLTEPE KESTEL PROJECT / GORDION (HASSI HOYUK) / HARAN (HARRAN) [CARRHAE] / KERKENES DAG (PTERIA) / KINET HOYUK / KULTEPE (KANESH) / KURDU / LIMAN TEPE / MERSIN / MYRA / NEMRUT DAG / NORTH EASTERN TURKEY / ORTAK?Y (SHAPINUWA) / PANAZ TEPE / PINARBASI / SAKCAGOZU / SAMSAT (SAMOSATA) / SARDIS (SART) / SMYRNA (IZMIR) / SOS HOYUK / TARSUS / TILBES HOYUK / TROY (HISARLIK) / TURLU

IRANIAN SITES

ANSHAN (ANZAN) [TEPE MALYAN] / BAKHTIARI REGION / TALL-E-BAKUN / TALL-I-BAKUN / BEHISTUN (BISITUN) / CHOGA MAMI / CHOGHA MISH / CHOGHA ZANBIL / DEH LURAN / ECBATANA (ACHMETHA) [HAMADAN] / FARS SURVEY / GODIN TEPE / HAJJI FIRUZ TEPE / TEPE ALI KOSH / KHUZESTAN PROVINCE

SYRIAN SITES

ABDUL AZIZ / MINA / AMRIT / ANTIOCH / ARVAD (ARWAD) / ASWAD (BALIKH VALLEY) / ASWAD (DAMASCUS BASIN) / ATCHANA (ALALAKH) / BARSIB (AHMAR) / BEYDAR / BOUQRAS / BRAK (NAGAR) [NAWAR] / CHAGAR BAZAR / CHUERA / DAMASCUS / DOUARA CAVE / DURA EUROPUS / EMAR / FAKHARIYAH / GHORAIFE / HABUBA KABIRA (QANNAS) / HAGOSHERIM / HAMAH (HAMATH) [EPIPHANIA] / AIN HASHOMER / HAURAN / HOMS (EMESA) / JANUDIYEH / JERF AJLA / JUDAIDAH / JUDAIDAH JABBUL / KABRI / KADESH / TELL KHAZZAMI / KHIRBET KUM / LABWEH / MASHNAQA / QALAT MUDIQ / MUGHARET ABDE / MUREYBAT / QARQUR / QAT / QATNA (MISHRIFEH) [KATNA] / RAMAD / RAMITHA (LAODICEA) / SABI ABYAD / SAIDNAYA / SHEIKH / SHEIKH ALI / SLENFE / SUKAS / SWEYHAT / TABBAT HAMMAM / TANNUR / TARTUS / TERQA (ASHARA) / TUNEINIR / TURMUS / UGARIT (RAS SHAMRA) / URKESH (MOZAN)

LEBANESE SITES

ACHZIB (ECDIPPA) / ARD TLAILI / ARSLAN / BAALBEK (HELIOPOLIS) / BEIRUT (BERYTUS) / BYBLOS / DBAYE / AIN EBEL / HASHBAI / KUBBAH / MUKTARA / NACCACHE / NACHARINI / NEBA'A (NEBAA) FAOUR / AIN NFAIKH / SAREPTA (SARAFAND) / SHAMSINE / SIDON (SAIDA) / SCIES - MEHDI - SAAIDEH / TRIPOLI / TYRE

JORDANIAN SITES

See Page On : The domestication of water: water management in the ancient world and its prehistoric origins in the Jordan Valley by Steven Mithen in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (2010)

ABILA - TEL ABIL - ABEL MAACHAH / AMMAN (RABBATH AMMON) / BEIDHA / BOSTRA (BOZRAH) [BUSRA] / DHIBAN (DIBON) / WADI DHOBAI / KHIRBAT FAYNAN / WADI FEINAN / AIN GHAZAL / GHWAIR I / WADI GHUWAYB / JEBEL HAMRAT FIDAN / WADI HAMMEH / HISBAN / HUMEIMA / JERASH (JARASH) / ARBILA (BETH ARBEL) [MODERN IRBID] / KHIRBET ISKANDER / KARAK (KERAK) / ABU KHARAZ / KHIRBET KERAK (BETH YERAH) / MACHAEROUS / MADABA / MADABA PLAIN / BIR MADHKUR / BEIT MIRSIM / KHIRBAT NAHAS / MOUNT NEBO / NIMRIN / PELLA (TABAQAT FAHL) / PUNON / WADI RAMM / RASAS / RUJM TABA / SAHEM / TELL ABU SUWWAN /TELL ABU SUWWAN / WADI THAMAD (KHIRBET MUDAYNA) / UMAYRI (ABEL KERAMIM) / WF16 / WADI YABIS / YA'AMUN / WADI ZIQLAB

BAHRAIN ARCHIPELAGO: DILMUN -- TELMUN -- TYLOS

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The island of Philae, not far from Aswan, with its great monumental complexes dedicated to the cult of Isis was considered to be one of the most sacred sites of Ancient Egypt. This evocative illustration is taken from Views of the Nile by Owen Jones (1843) -- Plate: The Discovery of the Nile -- Gianni Guadalupi -- Chartwell Books -- ISBN: 0-7858-1527-9

The Neolithic of the Levant (1978)
A.M.T. Moore (Oxford University)

Thesis Submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

HTML (Volume 1) (Volume 2) or DIGITISED THESIS: PDF (1) (2)

This doctoral thesis is an excellent textbook on the Prehistoric Near East especially since much of the history that we know of the area up to and including the Neolithic occurred in the Levant. I think you will find also that the time frame of this book agrees with current sources .....

Levant Map ..... Abstract ..... Introduction: Page 1

Introduction: Page 2 ..... Introduction: Page 3 ..... Introduction: Page 4 ..... Introduction: Page 5

CHAPTER 1: ABSTRACT / ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS / INTRODUCTION

THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE LEVANT IN THE
LATE PLEISTOCENE AND EARLY HOLOCENE

LATE PLEISTOCENE / SUMMARY

EARLY HOLOCENE / SUMMARY

CHAPTER 2: THE MESOLITHIC OF THE LEVANT

MESOLITHIC 1 / SETTLEMENT PATTERNS / ECONOMY AND SOCIETY

MESOLITHIC 2 / SETTLEMENT PATTERNS / ECONOMY AND SOCIETY

CHAPTER 3: NEOLITHIC 1 / DISTRIBUTION OF SITES / ECONOMY / DISCUSSION

JERICHO / NAHAL OREN / MUGHARET WAD / RAKAFET / KHIAM /
GILGAL / POLEG / BEIDHA / HAR HARIF / NACHARINI /
MUREYBAT / ASWAD / SAIDNAYA

CHAPTER 4: NEOLITHIC 2 / MIDDLE EUPHRATES: MUREYBAT / ABU
HUREYRA
/ BOUQRAS / ASWAD (BALIKH) / FAKHARIYAH /
ABDUL AZIZ / KUM / PALMYRA REGION

WEST SYRIA: ASWAD / RAMAD / GHORAIFE / LABWEH / SCIES
MEHDI SAAIDEH
/ NACHARINI / MUGHARET ABDE /
HAURAN / UGARIT / SLENFE

PALESTINE: JERICHO / NAHAL OREN / KHIAM / MUNHATTA

MOUNT CARMEL: IRAQ BARUD / MEGIDDO / JORDAN VALLEY:
BEISAMUN / KFAR GILADI / SHEIKH ALI / TELEILAT GHASSUL /
JUDEAN HILLS: TELL FARAH (NORTH) / ABU GOSH

NEGEV AND SINAI / TRANSJORDAN PLATEAU:
WADI DHOBAI / BEIDHA

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PALESTINIAN AND WEST
SYRIAN AND MIDDLE EUPHRATES SITES IN NEOLITHIC 2

PRINCIPAL CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NEOLITHIC 2 SETTLEMENTS
DISTRIBUTION OF SITES / ECONOMY: MIDDLE EUPHRATES SITES
WEST SYRIAN SITES / PALESTINIAN SITES / DISCUSSION

CHAPTER 5: NEOLITHIC 3 / MIDDLE EUPHRATES

NORTH SYRIA: RAS SHAMRA / TELL SUKAS / HAMA / HOMS /
QALAT MUDIQ / JANUDIYEH / TELL JUDAIDAH / TELL SHEIKH /
MERSIN / SAKCAGOZU / TELL TURLU / JUDAIDAH JABBUL

SOUTH SYRIA: LEBANESE COAST: BYBLOS / KUBBAH / TABBAT HAMMAM /
BEKAA VALLEY: TELL LABWEH / NEBA'A (NEBAA) FAOUR / TELL SHAMSINE /
TELL HASHBAI / BEISAMUN / TANNUR / QAT / AIN HASHOMER /
KFAR GILADI / HAGOSHERIM / TELL TURMUS / KABRI /
DAMASCUS BASIN: TELL RAMAD

PALESTINE / SOUTH PALESTINE / NORTH PALESTINE

PRINCIPAL CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NEOLITHIC 3 SETTLEMENTS
TIMESPAN OF NEOLITHIC 3 / DISTRIBUTION OF SITES /
ECONOMY / DISCUSSION

CHAPTER 6: NEOLITHIC 4 / SOUTH SYRIA: LEBANESE COAST: BYBLOS /
DBAYE / NACCACHE / TELL ARSLAN / MUKTARA / OTHER
LEBANESE COAST SURFACE STATIONS CONTEMPORARY
NEOLITHIQUE MOYEN BYBLOS
/ LEBANESE COAST HEAVY
NEOLITHIC (CAMPIGNIAN) SITES

BEKAA VALLEY: TELL ARD TLAILI / TELL AIN NFAIKH / REMAINING
BEKAA SITES CONTEMPORARY NEOLITHIQUE MOYEN BYBLOS
/
BEKAA HEAVY NEOLITHIC (CAMPIGNIAN) SITES / KARAOUN /
OTHER HEAVY NEOLITHIC SITES BEKAA

DAMASCUS BASIN: TELL KHAZZAMI / TELL RAMAD

PALESTINE: SOUTH PALESTINE: JERICHO / OTHER SOUTH PALESTINIAN SITES
NORTH PALESTINE: MUNHATTA / SHEIKH ALI / WEST PALESTINE: WADI
RABAH
/ TELULIOT BATASHI / BASHAN STREET (TEL AVIV) /
SITE 8/17 / HAZOREA

OTHER WEST PALESTINE SITES / NORTHERN PALESTINE
HEAVY NEOLITHIC SITES
/ SUPPLEMENTARY PALESTINIAN
NEOLITHIC 3 AND 4 SITES

DISTRIBUTION OF NEOLITHIC 4 SITES / ECONOMY /
COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION AND TRADE

CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSION (BOOK SUMMARY)

.
Jerusalem Mission or Statement of Purpose: In as much as I am an individual and not affiliated with any educational group or organization I wish to convey my appreciation to all those entities involved in the publication of the wealth of material on the ever more studied and increasingly popular subject of the Ancient Near East. At times the immensity of the effort necessary to achieve my goal of a concise and yet comprehensive collection of abstracts (compendium) as a portal to further studies has made me consider ceasing my labour of love on the subject. But each time I have felt compelled to return to my endeavours, realizing at last that this is a work of a lifetime and that no one could with any hope possibly read in totality the staggering amount of material on the subject. Admittedly I am the author of original material only to the extent of my reading and consolidating articles into what I consider most relevant to a beginning or intermediate comprehension of the subject; and of course the additions derived from my own studies (addendums) ...

Author:
Title:
Keyword:
Mark Alan McDonald / Bookmark