Grand Union: This flag was authorized by the Second  Continental Congress in 1775 and featured the British Union Jack as well as a field of 13 red and white stripes representing the 13 colonies ... The symbolism apparently carried a double message -- loyalty to Great Britain but unity of the American colonies Table of Contents = Civilizations -- Cultures -- Areas -- Regions -- Prehistory / Excerpts / Other Archaeological Sites
The Neolithic of the Levant (503 Pages Type Written) or DIGITISED THESIS: PDF (1) (2) HTML (Volume 1) (Volume 2)

The History of the Ancient Near East

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June 6th 2020
Mark Alan McDonald
140 e South Temple
Salt Lake City Utah 84111

The Encyclopaedia Britannica --- Seventh Edition --- Volume 8 --- Page 550 (1842)

In speaking of the mechanical labours of the ancient Egyptians it is impossible to pass unnoticed Lake Moeris, which is described by Herodotus as not less wonderful than the Labyrinth. Its circumference, he informs us, measured three thousand six hundred stadia, making sixty schoeni or four hundred and fifty miles; an extent equal to the sea-coast of Egypt. Its greatest length stretched from north to south and its greatest depth was not less than fifty orgyias or thirty-six fathoms. He is of the opinion that it was excavated by the hand of man;

A Report on the Soil and Water of the Wadi Tumilat Lands Under Reclamation by A. Lucas (1903)

The Wadi Tumilat is a long narrow strip of land extending almost due east and west between the cultivation of the Nile delta near Abbassa and Lake Timsah at Ismailia. The valley is bounded on both the north and the south by desert.


The Wadi Tuimilat formed part of the land of Goshen granted to Jacob and his sons about 1720 B.C. by the ruling Pharaoh who then described it as being “the best of the land”.

This description of the district was doubtless however from a shepherd’s point of view. In those days probably an overflow channel from the Nile inundated the valley annually during the flood and afterwards drained the lands into Lake Timsah on the waters subsiding. The flooded lands no doubt as soon as the waters retired grew green with fine pasturage and held in their lowest hollows lakes of sweet water for cattle to drink. So that for Jacob’s sons, who were shepherds, the valley was "the best of the land".

The extensive deposits of Nile mud in the Wadi Tumilat prove the flow in ancient times of a considerable branch of the Nile eastward into the Red Sea. But a very slight elevation or silting up of the Red Sea would obstruct this arm of the Nile and impair the water communication and the fertility of the district. Of such results we have no evidence till the reign of Seti I, some time before the Exodus, when it became necessary to cut a canal through the Wadi Tumilat and this canal had to be reopened and extended to the southward by successive rulers down to the Roman Period as the difficulty of maintaining it increased.

This ancient canal, beginning at Bubastis, watered the land of Goshen with its branches and, entering the Bitter Lakes, changed their character according to Strabo and connected them with the Red Sea. From the not inconsiderable remains of the old canal near Belbés it appears to have been about 50 yards (100 ells according to Strabo) in width and 16 to 174 feet in depth. The somewhat steep banks are still strengthened at places with solid masonry. According to Herodotus the canal was four days’ journey and according to Pliny 62 Roman miles in length. In ancient times the canal was primarily constructed for purposes of navigation.

Some sections of this Pharaonic canal were utilized during the making of the Ismailia Canal of which they now form a part and one portion near Kassassin now serves as a section of the main drain.

In 1899 three kilometres which had been in use for irrigation were replaced by new channels ... In 1901 a further length of "17 kilometres of the old stagnant reed-choked Wadi Canal" was suppressed ... In addition many dry and partly filled up portions exist and may still be traced.

Evidence of Cosmic Impact at Abu Hureyra Syria at the Younger Dryas Onset (~12.8 ka)
by Andrew M. T. Moore et al in Science Reports Published 06 March 2020

For Interesting Lectures on the Younger Dryas and Catastrophism
See Randall Carlson on his You Tube Channel

New Evidence from Egypt on the Location of the Exodus Sea Crossing: Part I
Written by Gary Byers in ASSOCIATES FOR BIBLICAL RESEARCH (19 August 2008)

For millennia man has desired to impact the Suez Isthmus region but with minimal success. Ancient Egyptian texts and modern geological surveys have identified ancient canal lines cut between the marshy lakes of antiquity, called the Eastern Frontier Canal by their discoverers (Hoffmeier 2005: 42). Long before the Suez Canal both native and foreign rulers cut canals through the Isthmus for a variety of reasons. Ancient documents mention canal construction by Pharaohs Sesostris I or III (12th Dynasty) -- Necho II (610-595 BC) and the Persian king Darius (522-486 BC) as well as Ptolemy II (282-246 BC) (Hoffmeier 1997: 165, 169).

Jerusalem Mission or Statement of Purpose: In as much as I am an individual and not affiliated with any educational group or organization I wish to convey my appreciation to all those entities involved in the publication of the wealth of material on the ever more studied and increasingly popular subject of the Ancient Near East. At times the immensity of the effort necessary to achieve my goal of a concise and yet comprehensive collection of abstracts (compendium) as a portal to further studies has made me consider ceasing my labour of love on the subject. But each time I have felt compelled to return to my endeavours, realizing at last that this is a work of a lifetime and that no one could with any hope possibly read in totality the staggering amount of material on the subject. Admittedly I am the author of original material only to the extent of my reading and consolidating articles into what I consider most relevant to a beginning or intermediate comprehension of the subject; and of course the additions derived from my own studies (addendums) ...

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