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Other Archaeological Sites / The Neolithic of the Levant (500 Page Book Online)

Chapter 6: Neolithic 4 (Page 443)

BEKAA HEAVY NEOLITHIC (CAMPIGNIAN) SITES

Pre-History and Archaeology Glossary

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I have now described all the Neolithic 4 settlements known to have been inhabited in Lebanon. There is one other kind of site to be considered which occurs in this region. There are surface stations situated for the most part in southern Lebanon both on the seaward side of the mountains and in the Bekaa. They are always near sources of flint and the material found on them consists almost entirely of flint tools and waste. The waste flint is usually abundant and comprises flakes, thick blades, crested blades and orang slices. The cores may be pyramidal, discoid or cylindrical while prepared cores of Levallois type are also found. Some of the tools on these sites are fully finished, others only roughed out. Particularly common are axes, adzes, chisels and picks while flake scrapers are also found. Arrowheads and sickle blades are rare or absent. Both the tools and waste are relatively large and coarse which is why the sites have been described as "Heavy Neolithic" or "Campignian". These stations were factory sites on which flint tools, principally axes and others used in cutting and working timber, were roughed out.

The type-site for the Heavy Neolithic is Karaoun II in the southern Bekaa. I shall describe this site first and then the others which have been found elsewhere in the Bekaa, on the western slopes of the mountains and in Galilee ...

The History of the Ancient Near East Electronic Compendium