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Chapter 6: Neolithic 4 (Page 447-448)

LEBANESE COAST HEAVY NEOLITHIC (CAMPIGNIAN) SITES

Pre-History and Archaeology Glossary

Excerpts and Definitions and Addendums

Turning now to the sites on the coast of Lebanon, the most northerly of these is Fadaous South. This site is 12 kilometres north of Byblos beside the sea just south of Fadaous village. Many large side-scrapers and end-scrapers, cores and other waste were found here indicating that this was a Heavy Neolithic factory site.

The next site, Mtaileb I or Rabiya, is much further south, 1.5 kilometres east-north-east of Antelias in broken country about 300 metres above sea level. The site itself was covered with cores and waste pieces though only a few tools were found among them. These were roughed-out axes, chisels, picks and scrapers. Jedeideh III is not far from Mtaileb I since it is about 7 kilometres almost due east of Beirut. The surface collection from here consisted of large flake scrapers, choppers and picks. Beit Meri II is a little to the south-east overlooking the Nahr Jamani and Heavy Neolithic flints were also found here.

Hadeth South is 7 kilometres south-south-east of Beirut in the low hills overlooking the Sands. This site yielded coarse picks and choppers as well as cores and large flakes. Ourrouar II is just beyond Hadeth South on the north side of the Nahr Ghedir 8.5 kilometres south-south-east of Beirut. Some coarse picks, a chopping tool, axe, burins and scrapers were found here as well as a few segmented sickle blades and some waste. The station appears to have been another Heavy Neolithic factory site.

Jebel Aabeby is in southern Lebanon 1 kilometre east-south-east of Sidon. A variety of flake scrapers as well as large cores and other waste were collected on this site. Jbaa is well inland about 8 kilometres south-west of Jezzine. A number of big flake scrapers as well as many cores and much waste were found here. A few finished tools were also picked up, among them polished axes, adzes, a chisel and a pick. These other tools may indicate that the station served as a habitation site as well as a factory.

Sarafand on the coast is 14 kilometres south-west of Sidon. Some Heavy Neolithic material was collected from a site here which comprised an adze, chisel, some bifaces, flakes and blades.

Adlun II or Bezez cave is 19 kilometres south-west of Sidon beside the coast road. Zumoffen sounded the site in 1898 then the excavations were re-opened in 1963 by the Department of Antiquities of Lebanon, Garrod and Kirbride. A level above Upper Palaeolithic and earlier deposits and below more recent habitation debris contained an assemblage of Heavy Neolithic flints. A collection made at the site by Copeland in 1966 consisted of large, long trapezoidal axes and chisels, a chopper, a pick, points and a number of coarse flake scrapers. There were also flakes, blades, some cores and hammerstones. Most of this material is similar to Heavy Neolithic assemblages elsewhere thus Bezez cave was used as a factory site but was also inhabited for part of Neolithic 4.

I have now reviewed all the known sites that can reasonably be ascribed to the Lebanese coast and Bekaa sub-groups of the South Syrian group of Neolithic 4 sites. The third sub-group comprises sites in the Damascus basin ...

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