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The Wadi Tumilat Toumilat)

Updated August 28th 2019

HOLOCENE LAKE SEDIMENTS AS A SOURCE OF BUILDING MATERIAL IN ANCIENT EGYPT; ARCHEOMETRIC EVIDENCE FROM WADI TUMILAT (NILE DELTA)
by Małgorzata Zaremba -- Jerzy Trzciński -- Fabian Welc in Studia Quaternaria Volume 34 (2017): 109118

http://ancientneareast.tripod.com/PDF/HOLOCENE_LAKE_SEDIMENTS_AS_A_SOURCE_OF_B.pdf

The Tell el-Retaba archaeological site is located in the middle part of Wadi Tumilat which extends along the north-eastern margin of the Nile Delta. It contains fragments of fortified and domestic objects of the ancient fortress and other constructions built of mud bricks. The establishment and functioning of the fortress is dated at the times of the reign of two great pharaohs -- Ramesses II and Ramesses III (13th and 12th centuries BC) ... The source of material used for brick production were the natural sediments located in the vicinity of the fortress -- i.e. the Holocene lake clay and the Pleistocene gravel and sand of the gezira formation ... The fortress site was selected optimally in relation to the landscape morphology and close vicinity of the source of basic material and water used for mud brick production. The area around the fortress was substantially transformed by humans due to settlement.

Key words: clay-silt-sand-gravel, mud bricks, fortress walls, open-pit mine, climate changes

The Modern Traveller: A Popular Description, Geographical, Historical and Topographical
of the Various Countries of the Globe -- Volume 2 by Josiah Conder (1827)

http://ancientneareast.tripod.com/PDF/The_Modern_Traveller.pdf

The History of the Ancient Near East Electronic Compendium