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Chapter 6: Neolithic 4 Tell Ramad (Pages 450-451)

Pre-History and Archaeology Glossary

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Comparable cultural material though with interesting local variations has been found at Tell Ramad. Some artifacts were collected from the surface of the western part of the site which differed from those found in the excavations. The potsherds had a light coloured fabric with coarse grits and their surface had been polished with a red wash or slip. The vessels were bowls with lugs - some of which were pierced. A few had some incised decoration also. The accompanying flint tools included numerous axes - many of which were made of hard stone other than flint and completely polished. At first this occurrence was thought to be a development of Level III and so was designated IIIC. Then it was recognised as a later deposit which had been entirely eroded away leaving only some flint and potsherds on the surface of the mound.

The affinities of the flints and pottery are with Tell Khazzami and more distantly Byblos Neolithique Recent. The abundance of the axes suggests that woodworking was important here as on so many sites in the Bekaa Valley and on the Lebanese coast. The axes themselves however were somewhat different both in raw material and the extent to which some of them had been polished. This surface occupation like that of Tell Khazzami probably dates from late in Neolithic 4. There was thus a substantial gap in time between it and Level III at Tell Ramad.

I have now concluded my description of the South Syrian group of Neolithic 4 sites and will now turn to Palestine ...

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