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The Advent of the Era of Townships in Northern Mesopotamia
Abdul Jalil Jawad - Thesis - Doctor of Philosophy
Department of Anthropology - University of Chicago 1962
Library of Congress # DS 70.9 J3

Excerpts and Definitions and Addendums:

[Northern Mesopotamia - Zagros Mountains]

This is a region of low rolling hills (*B)intercalated between Jazirah and the foothills region. Its altitude varies from 750 feet above sea level. The region, which was the heartland of Ancient Assyria, is described as "natural grassland". Its annual rainfall ranges from 12 to 20 inches, and it is said to be sufficient ---- albeit slightly precarious ---- to yield winter (but not summer) crops without irrigation. The Tigris and the Euphrates flow in relatively straight courses here and several major tributaries of the Tigris join the main river.

As regards land use in the piedmont, it should be noted that, since the rainfall is not always reliable and does not permit the cultivation of crops in summer, therefore irrigation in the summer by means of canals or hydraulic machines is indispensable ...

*A Piedmont: lying or formed at the base of mountains
*B Intercalated: to insert between or among existing elements or layers

The History of the Ancient Near East Electronic Compendium