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Other Archaeological Sites / The Neolithic of the Levant (500 Page Book Online)

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In the Nagada II phase the Gerzean influence spread from Lower Egypt and paved the way for an urban and economic revolution in the upper reaches of the Nile. They were probably the first of the predynastic peoples to institute trade with Mesopotamia and India and they were responsible for a wide expansion of agriculture. Whereas Amratian culture had depended on hunting to supplement the food derived from the cultivation of crops, the Gerzean economy was based wholly on agriculture, in which artificial irrigation probably played an important part. Cast metal implements and weapons unearthed at Gerzean sites show that they had mastered the art of casting metal, and the use of copper in this period is indicative of extended trade with localities outside the Nile valley itself. From Asian sources came silver, lapis lazuli, lead, and other commodities, while cylinder seals that have been recovered from Gerzean graves are probably contemporary Mesopotamian products. Cosmetic techniques as practiced by the Badarians and Amratians were developed in Gerzean culture, and palettes made in the shape of various animals were widely used for the pulverizing of green kohl or malachite for cosmetic purposes ...

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