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Ancient Erbil (Irbil) [Assyrian Arbela]

Ancient Citadel of Erbil

The ancient Assyrian city of Arabilu and a modern town in northeastern Iraq. It has been continuously inhabited for about 8000 years and provides a living example of the formation of a tell (mound). Because it lies under the modern city there has been little excavation but it is known from texts that it had a temple dedicated to Ishtar and was a cult centre of importance, second only to Ashur itself. The earliest records referring to Arabilu belong to the late 3rd millennium BC ... (AHSFC)

Erbil is one of the most ancient cities down through history. Man first settled in the vicinity of Erbil in the form of an agricultural village in 6000 years BC. It is commonly known among historians that the city of Erbil dates back to 2500 BC. It is full of underground water. Since enemies were not capable of ruining these water sources people were able to always live in the city of Erbil (when under siege). However the root of this name dates back to the most ancient origin which is the records of the Kings of Ur III (2112-2004) BC ...

The History of the Ancient Near East Electronic Compendium