HOME / Table of Contents = Civilizations - Cultures - Areas - Regions - Prehistory
Other Archaeological Sites / The Neolithic of the Levant (500 Page Book Online)

Neolithic Munhatta

Selected Excerpts on Munhatta

The Neolithic of the Levant (1978)
A.M.T. Moore (Oxford University)

Chapter 6: Neolithic 4 Munhatta (Pages 455-456)

Chapter 4: Neolithic 2 Munhatta (Pages 223-226)

Pre-History and Archaeology Glossary

Site located in the northern Jordan Valley 215 metres below sea level. Excavations were conducted over a surface area of 2000 square metres by Jean Perrot in the 1960's ...

Les deux premières campagnes de fouilles à Munhatta (1962-3)
Jean Perrot in Syria Volume 41 (Pages 323-45) [1964]
Library of Congress # DS 94.5 S8

La troisieme campagne de fouilles à Munhatta (1964)
Jean Perrot in Syria Volume 43 (Pages 49-63) [1966]
Library of Congress # DS 94.5 S8

The earliest layers (6-3b) are dated to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) Period. The lithic (stone) industry of the PPNB is characterized by spear points and arrowheads made mostly from long blades removed from bipolar or naviform cores --- and by elongated sickle blades - burins and retouched blades. The assemblage also includes a large collection of ground-stone tools including flat bowls - querns and rubbing stones (See *1 Below). Of the faunal remains two thirds are of ovicaprids (sheep/goats); the rest are pig - cattle - gazelle and deer. From this evidence the economic basis seems to have been a mixed strategy of agriculture - herding and hunting.

There was a short occupational gap in layer 3a followed by the next layer (2b) which belonged to the Pottery Neolithic (PN) Period known as the Yarmukian Culture tentatively dated to 5500-5000/4800 BC (uncalibrated). The earliest pottery at the site is characterized by pithoi (storage jars) - holemouth jars and decorated bowls as well as handleless jars. The lithic industry of layer 2b contained denticulated sickle blades - awls and perforators - scrapers and burins - and a few arrowheads and bifacials. The assemblage resembles that of Shaar Hagolan and may indicate that the sites were occupied by the same people (See *2 Below).

Most of layer 2a is related to the Wadi Rabah Phase (4800-4000 BC) which is often considered Early Chalcolithic (copper-stone) and reflects Halafian connections (See ibid). The stone tools from layer two were made using unidirectional cores - a feature that distinguishes them from the PPNB industry and includes sickle blades and scrapers. Layer 1 - which was disturbed by agricultural ctivities - contained remains from the Early Bronze Age .....

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

The History of the Ancient Near East Electronic Compendium