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PreHistoric Jabal -- Jebel (Mount) and Khirbat -- Khirbet (ruin) Hamrat Fidan in Jordan

See the PUNON Entry in the Encyclopedia Judaica --- Second Edition (2007)

Located in Biblical Edom 35 miles north of Petra in Jordan, Khirbat Faynān is one of the oldest sites in the Levant. The Jabal (Arabic == Mountain) Hamrat Fidan in southern Jordan marks the gateway to the Wadi Faynan District; the largest source of copper ore in the southern Levantine mainland.

Figure 1.3 Topography of Wadis Faynan, Fidan, Dana, Ghuwayr, al-Ghuwayb, and Shayqar in relation to the major archaeological sites and the ancient ‘field system’ WF4 (1)

The Wadi Faynan becomes the Wadi Fidan as it approaches the low ridge of the Jabal Hamrat Fidan in a shallow gorge before it enters the great shallow trough and rift basin of the main Wadi Arabah draining north to the Dead Sea (1).

(1) Archaeology and Desertification: The Wadi Faynan Landscape Survey in Southern Jordan by Barker et al in Levant Supplementary Series Vol 6 (2007)

Bronze Age Factory Discovered in Jordan (Khirbat Hamra Ifdan) in the National Geographic News

The Jabal Hamrat Fidan Project: Excavations at the Wadi Fidan 40 Cemetery by Thomas E Levy et al in Jordan (1997)

The Southern Transjordan Edomite Plateau and the Dead Sea Rift Valley: The Bronze Age to the Islamic Period (3800/3700 BC AD 1917) by Burton MacDonald (2015)

Early Bronze Age metallurgy: A newly discovered copper manufactory in southern Jordan by Thomas E Levy et al in Antiquity 76 (June 2015)

A newly discovered scarab of Sheshonq I: recent Iron Age explorations in southern Jordan by Thomas E. Levy et al in Antiquity Volume 88 September 2014

The beginning of Iron Age copper production in the southern Levant: New evidence from Khirbat al-Jariya, Faynan in Jordan

The History of the Ancient Near East Electronic Compendium