Other Archaeological Sites / The Neolithic of the Levant (500 Page Book Online)
Library of Congress # DS 71 O35
Excerpts and Definitions and Addendums:
The length of overlap between the Gutian line recognized in the Sumerian King-List and the later kings of Agade remaains a matter of dispute but is crucial to the dating of earlier kings. The period from the death of Shar-kali-sharri to the rise of the new political power at Ur known as the Third Dynasty (Ur III) was probably no more than a century no matter which dating chronology is adopted. During this time (although much of northern Babylonia or Akkad suffered severe disruption and depredation) several cities in the south - most notably Lagash - regained some local authority and autonomy. The leading figure among these later ensi of Lagash and indeed one whose inscriptions imply considerable political prestige was Gudea (2141-2122); well known to us from his many statues which have survived from ancient Mesopotamia.
But it was a king from Uruk, one Utu-hegal (2123-2113 BC) who - or so he claims - rid the country of the Gutian menace. At the city-state of Ur he appointed a military-governor named Ur-Nammu who soon struck out for himself and overthrew his erstwhile protector. He assumed the title King of Ur. In this way was founded a new dynasty at that city in many ways as remarkable as that of Agade.
The reinstatement of kingship at Ur was marked also by a reversion to Sumerian as the official language - at least throughout Sumer. For this reason the period is often characterized as a Sumerian revival or as some others like to call it - renaissance ...