Other Archaeological Sites / The Neolithic of the Levant (500 Page Book Online)
Neolithic Tell Brak (Ancient Nagar or Nawar) on the Khabur River in NE Syria
Ceramics and chipped stone characteristic of, respectively, the earlier Halaf and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B periods suggest that the occupation of Tell Brak may go back to at least the seventh/eighth millennium BC (Page 32 in 1) ...
Selected Excerpt on Tell Brak
A tell site of circa 30 hectares on the Khabur River in northeast Syria overlooking an important river crossing. Material from the Halaf and Ubaid periods indicates a long history but the site is best known for its sequence of rich temples of the late Uruk and Jemdet Nasr periods when it was clearly an important centre. Most famous of all is the so-called Eye Temple, richly decorated with clay cones, copper panels and gold work in a style very similar to that found in the contemporary temples of Sumer in Mesopotamia. Later in the 3rd millennium BC Tell Brak became a provincial capital of the Akkadian Empire; the palace of Naramsin of this period was more of a depot for the storage of tribute and loot than a residential seat. The city was plundered after the fall of the Akkadian Empire but the palace was rebuilt in the UR III Period by Ur Nammu ... (AHSFC)
How Agriculture Developed in Northern Mesopotamia --- Archaeology Magazine (October 03 2017)
TELL BRAK in SYRIA---Science Nordic reports that a new study of grains excavated from ancient cities in northern Mesopotamia is giving archaeologists a new picture of how agriculture developed in the area. A team led by Oxford University archaeologist Amy Styring measured the stable isotopes of 276 grain samples taken from the Syrian site of Tell Brak, as well as four other settlements dating from 6500 to 2000 B.C. They compared the results with modern samples grown under controlled conditions which allowed them to assess how much manure was used to cultivate the grains. Among their findings was that as the cities grew in size farmers cultivated larger areas and used less manure, in contrast with southern Mesopotamia where irrigation became widespread and the land was farmed very intensively.
Urbanization at Tell Brak in Syria --- Archaeology Magazine (2008)
Archaeologists have long believed that the world's oldest cities lay along the fertile riverbanks of southern Mesopotamia in what is now Iraq. There in a land of plenty, went the idea, powerful kings began coercing their subjects to live together some 6000 years ago. Their great invention -- the city -- later spread throughout the Near East. But last August Harvard University archaeologist Jason Ur and two British colleagues turned that idea on its head. Their intensive field survey and surface collection of potsherds at the site of Tell Brak in northern Syria revealed that an ancient city rose there at exactly the same time as urban centers first sprouted up in southern Mesopotamia, but followed a very different model of development. "Urbanism" says Ur "is not one brilliant idea that occurred one place and then diffused.
Original Article: Isotope evidence for agricultural extensification reveals how the world's first cities were fed
This study sheds light on the agricultural economy that underpinned the emergence of the first urban centres in northern Mesopotamia. Using δ13C and δ15N values of crop remains from the sites of Tell Sabi Abyad, Tell Zeidan, Hamoukar, Tell Brak and Tell Leilan (6500–2000 cal bc), we reveal that labour-intensive practices such as manuring/middening and water management formed an integral part of the agricultural strategy from the seventh millennium bc. Increased agricultural production to support growing urban populations was achieved by cultivation of larger areas of land, entailing lower manure/midden inputs per unit area—extensification. Our findings paint a nuanced picture of the role of agricultural production in new forms of political centralization. The shift towards lower-input farming most plausibly developed gradually at a household level, but the increased importance of land-based wealth constituted a key potential source of political power, providing the possibility for greater bureaucratic control and contributing to the wider societal changes that accompanied urbanization.
The emergence of the first urban centres represents a pivotal moment in human history and much research has focused on changes in the political, social and productive economy that accompanied and likely contributed to this change. In this study we consider the stable carbon isotope (δ13C) and nitrogen isotope (δ15N) values of 276 charred cereal grain and 44 pulse seed samples from the sites of Tell Sabi Abyad -- Tell Zeidan -- Hamoukar -- Tell Brak and Tell Leilan, located in the Khabur and Balikh drainage basins in northern Mesopotamia and dating to between 6500 and 2000 BC. This allows us to investigate how the staple economy supported the new population centres that emerged in the fourth and third millennia BC in northern Mesopotamia and thus to reconsider wider debates surrounding the agroecology of early urbanism, its sustainability and the role of political centralisation in shaping some of the world’s earliest urbanized landscapes.
(1) A Thousand Years of Farming: Late Chalcolithic Agricultural Practices at Tell Brak in
Changes in crop husbandry practices in the Late Chalcolithic appear to be associated with an intensification of agriculture: crops from the later half of the Late Chalcolithic tend to have had better growing conditions and fields appear to have been tilled. This change corresponds chronologically with what appears to be the arrival of southern Mesopotamian settlers on the site though it cannot be determined whether agricultural intensification was a direct response to this event or whether it was the response to an isolated northern urban development, already underway by the time of the arrival of southern Mesopotamian material culture in the region.
Chapter 1 Introduction
Agriculture formed the basis of the economy of ancient Near Eastern communities; a study of the crop husbandry practices of Tell Brak can potentially identify the plant economy of the site including the crops present in the settlement and methods of crop processsing and use. Any agricultural responses to changes in the socio-political system, known from the archaeological evidence to have taken place during the Late Chalcolithic, can also be assessed. These responses may be able to give us an indication of the wider economic responses to societal change during the Late Chalcolithic.
The Late Chalcolithic is a period of far-reaching changes in many aspects of life in Mesopotamia. On the southern alluvial plain (present day Iraq) the first city states appear, among them the city of Uruk which grows to become the largest of the cities in the south. The growth of cities coincides with evidence for elaborate ritual building complexes, an increasingly class-stratified society, industrial specialisation and multi-tiered administration which includes the invention of writing.
In northern Mesopotamia signs of an increasingly complex society appear including the growth of some towns into large urban centres within a multi-tiered settlement hierarchy with elaborate architecture and evidence for complex administration and manufacturing specialisation and participation in long-distance exchange networks. In the later half of the Late Chalcolithic settlements are also established in the north which carry distinct southern Mesopotamian features --- the material remains of the so-called “Uruk Expansion” (Algaze 1989 and 1993) or "Uruk Phenomenon” (Collins 2000). These enclaves vary from small districts within northern indigenous settlements with mixed southern and local material assemblages to seemingly independent isolated settlements covering the full range of southern Mesopotamian material culture. They are sometimes thought to have been established by southern Mesopotamian settlers with the purpose of securing trade relations between southern and northern Mesopotamia. There are however doubts as to the character of this southern intrusion on the north, especially whether the southern material culture should be viewed as the remains of a process of southern conquest or colonization or a less dramatic process of acculturation following reciprocal interaction between the communities of the two regions.
The archaeobotanical record of the Near East suffers from a lack of reported Late Chalcolithic plant remains. The large amounts of well-preserved charred plant remains at Tell Brak however provide us with much needed information on Late Chalcolithic agricultural practices. Comparisons can then be made with the limited amount of material recovered from other contemporary sites in the Near East.
The archaeological focus of this volume, Tell Brak, is a multi-period settlement with extensive Late Chalcolithic occupation levels. An almost complete chronological sequence from the Late Chalcolithic has been excavated on the site which allows us to follow not only the growth of the settlement from a town to a regional centre in the beginning of the Late Chalcolithic but also, in the later half of the Late Chalcolithic, the arrival of southern Mesopotamian material culture -- possibly southern settlers -- to this northern settlement and the effects a southern presence may have had on the local community.
Chapter 2 Environmental setting of the study
Tell Brak is situated in the southern part of the Khabur region by the confluence of two wadis feeding off the Khabur River -- the Wadi Jaghjagh and Wadi Radd. Though the Jaghjagh is only a small stream today the importance of the wadi in the past can be seen from the number of large tells situated along its banks (David Oates -- Joan Oates -- Helen McDonald 2001:xxvii). There are no estimates of the size of the wadi in the past but it is thought to have been of a “considerable” depth in the third millennium BC as it was also observed to be during the excavations at Tell Brak in the 1970s and 1980s (ibid:xxix). The limited size of the wadi today is partly the result of the drop in the water table from the use of petrol-driven irrigation pumps (David Oates 1990:389).
Regarding the agricultural potential of the region an important topographic feature is the wide plains of the area. Though in terms of per-unit cultivation dry-farming is considered half as productive as irrigation agriculture (Weiss 1986:95 and Wilkinson 1990:89) the much vaster amount of land available for cultivation in northern Mesopotamia compared to that in the south meant that the total amount of crops produced were potentially as great as or even greater than what could be achieved in southern Mesopotamia (Weiss 1986:74).
2.1.2. Geology and soils
Guest (1966:71-2) observes that the soils of the moist steppe, that is steppe receiving 350-500 mm yearly rainfall, have been impoverished due to the continuation of dry-farming through millennia, with the soils suffering leaching and erosion. A similar point is made by Smith and Young (1972:48) arguing that increasingly shorter fallow intervals throughout the Holocene have resulted in a decline in soil fertility. French (2003:237) suggests that the silty clay alluvial soils along the Wadi Jaghjagh were rich in nutrients in the past and it is thus reasonable to assume that the soils in northern Mesopotamia were more fertile in the Late Chalcolithic than they are today. On the lower dry-steppe (receiving 200-350 mm rain annually) on the other hand, Guest (1966:71) notes that due to the irregularity of the rainfall and consequently the change between years of sufficient rain for dry-farming and years of drought, the soils have not been exhausted and are able to give high crop returns in good years.
2.1.3. Past and present climate
The general trends therefore indicate a wetter and warmer climate in Mesopotamia after 12,000 BC until the early third millennium BC, with denser oak forest in the Taurus and northern Zagros Mountains and a heavier grass cover on the steppe lands. The climate thus appears to have been wetter and warmer in the Late Chalcolithic than it is today (Miller 1997a:124), meaning that Late Chalcolithic farmers potentially would have been able to exploit a larger area for reliable dry-farming than at present (Wright 2001:128). While conditions overall may have been better in terms of dry-farming, it is still likely that there were minor climatic fluctuations throughout the Late Chalcolithic.
From about 3200 BC global aridification appears to have set in, changing the climate in northern Mesopotamia towards a drier environment (Weiss et al 1993:1001). Weiss (2002) suggests that this abrupt climate change to a drier environment lasted for about 200 years. In the case of sites situated near the 300 mm isohyet [where dry-farming is possible without irrigation] that would mean a decrease to 225 mm, insufficient for a dry-farming economy (ibid). Even with a less precise estimate it is clear that any reduction in precipitation in this marginal area would have considerable effects on agricultural production.
184.108.40.206. Past vegetation
Pollen records (Bottema 1989:5-6) show that the Eastern Mediterranean and Near East were covered in steppe and desert-steppe about 15,000 years ago and that forests were found mainly in the Levant and along the Black Sea coast. Plant growth was restricted by lower levels of both temperature and humidity.
By the Late Chalcolithic the region around Tell Brak is thought to have been that of open steppe with clusters of riverine forests and with heavily cultivated areas nearer to the cities, especially towards the north where higher rainfall levels than to the south were to be expected (Oates, Oates and McDonald 2001:xxviii-xxix). Towards the south the area was less densely inhabited and there may have been areas of marshland along the Wadi Radd (ibid).
2.1.5 Water resources and irrigation
Tell Brak lies just below the 300 mm rainfall isohyet. The area receives an average 284 mm annual rainfall, most of it in November-February, and is thus below the dry-farming limit in dry years. The location of Tell Brak close to several wadis means that the site may be lying on the watershed between two of these wadis, and at least part of the water consumption of the site may have been provided by drilling for ground water in the past. Wells have been excavated on-site from third millennium BC contexts, though no evidence for wells has been reported from the Late Chalcolithic levels. Apparently, until recently Tell Brak was known for the quality of its water, and one nearby village is named Bir Helu or “sweet water/well” (Wilkinson et al 2001:4).
Late Chalcolithic rainfall levels are difficult to estimate with any precision; given the marginal position of Tell Brak, even minor fluctuations in annual rainfall levels could have had major consequences for the agricultural potential in the immediate environs of the site. However, there does appear to be indications of a warmer and wetter climate during this period than today, and annual rainfall levels may have been well over 300 mm in the Late Chalcolithic, possibly with a decrease towards the end of the period.
220.127.116.11. Irrigation in the past
A relevant question to the discussion of the use of irrigation at Late Chalcolithic Tell Brak is whether this practice was at all necessary at the time. Climate reconstructions suggest that the fourth millennium BC may have seen a slightly wetter and warmer climate than today; and given the present position of Tell Brak on the margin of dry-farming land, even slight increases in rainfall levels to what they are now may have secured the dry-farming potential of the area around Tell Brak.
The earliest direct archaeological evidence for irrigation in the Near East is from sixth-millennium BC Choga Mami in the Mandali area in southeast Iraq where a system of ancient water channels running off the Gangir and Ab-i-Naft rivers has been found (Kühne 1990:15, David Oates and Joan Oates 1976:125 and 128-132); given its later date and the connections with communities in southern Mesopotamia the inhabitants of the Late Chalcolithic settlement at Tell Brak would thus potentially have had the necessary skills and knowledge for the use of an irrigation system. In Syria Neolithic Mureybit has yielded archaeobotanical and palynological indications for irrigation in levels dating to the ninth and seventh millennia BC (Miller 1980:331).
There is no archaeological evidence for canals in the Khabur Valley until the first millennium BC (McCorriston 1995:34), though Kühne (1990:15) suggests that irrigation systems may well have existed in the region from the Early Bronze Age onwards. The earliest textual evidence for irrigation agriculture in northern Mesopotamia is from the Old Assyrian period, i.e. late second millennium BC (Weiss 1986:80) and irrigation is not thought to have been used in the Euphrates valley west of the Khabur Valley until Roman times (van Zeist and Bakker-Heeres 1988:283). In modern times irrigation practices in northern Mesopotamia were unusual until the introduction of petrol driven pumps.
Around Tell Brak no definite archaeological evidence in the shape of ancient artificial water channels has been uncovered to suggest that fields were irrigated in the past. The river Jaghjagh, which runs at a distance of roughly 3 kilometres from the site today, may have had some of its water directed towards Tell Brak via an artificial channel (Wilkinson et al 2001:2) though it has also been suggested from the evidence of satellite images that the wadi itself may have run next to the foot of the mound in the past (Sommerfield, Archi and Weiss 2004). Archaeological evidence for irrigation is thus inconclusive.
2.2. Traditional crop husbandry practices and crop yields in northern Mesopotamia
In northern Mesopotamia today most rain falls during the autumn and winter and modern crop sowing is timed according to the autumn rains. At the other end of the growing period the crop is dependent on the April rains in order for the grains to grow to a sufficient size (David Oates and Joan Oates 1976:113). Traditionally cereal crops are broadcast and fields may be cross ploughed afterwards to cover the seeds (Charles 1990:51).
In the area around Tell Brak today most fields are irrigated by petrol driven pumps. Crops are usually sown in October-December and harvested in May-June. The sowing of winter cereal crops appears to have been the norm in ancient times as well with no mention of summer cereal crops in ancient texts (David Oates and Joan Oates 1976:117).
In the recent past a third to half of the agricultural land was allowed to lie fallow for a year to regain its fertility and moisture content over the winter (Naval Intelligence Division 1943:251). Fallowing recovers the fertility of the land, thus making it possible to cultivate it for longer; it reduces salinisation of irrigated land and provides grazing land for livestock (Charles 1990:47-8). Wilkinson (1990:91) estimates that the practice of fallowing results in crop yield increases of 150-200%, i.e. growing crops every other year after a fallow period yields roughly as high a crop yield as annual harvesting but without exhausting the soil.
[Therefore without irrigation] agriculture in northern Mesopotamia is dependent on a much larger area of agricultural land to grow a crop compared to southern Mesopotamia, but with much more land available in the north compared to the south, northern Mesopotamia is probably at least as productive agriculturally as the southern alluvial plain.
Chapter 3 Archaeological and socio-political overview
3.1.1. Chronology of early Mesopotamian civilisations
The Late Chalcolithic covers all of the fourth millennium BC and is also named the Uruk period after the largest city of that time in southern Mesopotamia. The Uruk period is generally assumed to have lasted roughly between 4200 and 3100 BC and is divided into several phases, from Early to Late Uruk, including in the north local sub-phases (northern Uruk phases). "Late Chalcolithic” (with phases abbreviated LC 1 to 5) and “Uruk period” are used interchangeably and when discussing the data specifically from Tell Brak the period designations used are those of the TW sequence, i.e. including “northern Uruk” occupation levels (Table 3.3).
3.1.2. The natural resources of Mesopotamia
3.1.3. The role of exchange in the development of complex society
3.2. A brief look at the Ubaid period
3.2.1. Southern Mesopotamia
Animal bones from excavated sites show that sheep, goats, cattle and pigs were kept and that birds, gazelle and onager were hunted (Pollock 1999:81-3). Agricultural products included wheat and barley, flax, figs, lentils and other pulses and possibly also a variety of vegetables and fruit that rarely survive.
3.2.2. Northern Mesopotamia
3.3. The Late Chalcolithic
3.3.1. Southern Mesopotamia
3.3.2. Northern Mesopotamia and the “Uruk Expansion”
A study of north Mesopotamian settlement patterns (Lupton 1996) has indicated that the northern settlements were not affected to any large extent by the presence of southern Mesopotamian settlers. Lupton argues that the area around Tell Brak, for instance, most probably had a three-tier settlement system before contact with southerners (ibid 34) and that northern Mesopotamia in general was organised into hierarchically structured regional systems (ibid 99) with little change from contacts with southerners. The amount of influence southern Mesopotamia may have had on the formation of northern Mesopotamian complex society is, therefore, possibly of a lesser degree than initially anticipated.
3.3.3. Evidence for north-south interaction
Chapter 4 Tell Brak: Gateway between north and south
4.1. Tell Brak
Area CH: The earliest levels so far excavated date to the mid-fifth millennium BC (Late Ubaid and Late Chalcolithic 1 in Area CH). These levels include monumental buildings dating to at least as early as the end of the Ubaid Period (2).
The long occupation of Tell Brak is reflected in the size of the central mound today, covering some 45 hectares and rising about 43 metres above the surrounding plain.The site is estimated to have covered about 50 hectares in the Late Chalcolithic 2 (Early Uruk period) and grew to over 130 hectares during the Late Chalcolithic 3-4 (Joan Oates et al 2007:597). This is thought to be roughly the same size as the largest contemporary cities on the southern alluvial plain (Joan Oates and David Oates 1997:290).
LC2 (4200-3850 BC)
Fieldwork at sites such as Tell Brak and Hamoukar (and its suburban area of Khirbat al-Fakhar) in Syria (Oates et al 2007) has demonstrated that stable urban centers were present in the north by the late 5th and 4th millennia BC. The idea of the temporal primacy of southern Mesopotamia as the location of the first cities, long taken as a given in Near Eastern archaeology, no longer holds (Page 562 in 4) ...
A third millennium BC tablet from nearby Tell Beydar has revealed that the ancient name of Tell Brak was Nagar and that the city was an important regional centre during this time (Emberling and McDonald 2001:21). Later texts from Mari imply that Nagar may have held an important religious position in the region (Matthews and Eidem 1993:203). Tell Brak appears to have ruled over Tell Beydar and to have had commercial relations with other large regional centres like Mari and Ebla (from where texts have been found mentioning the city of Nagar), the latter of which appears to have depended on its supply of a type of equids, possibly onagers, from Tell Brak in exchange for oil (Archi 1998).
The function of Tell Brak as an administrative centre during the Akkadian period (late third millennium BC) is reflected in the large “Naramsin Palace", a well fortified building containing narrow storage rooms, probably used for the storage of goods collected from the near region (Akkermans and Schwartz 2003:279, David Oates and Joan Oates 2001:19). The size of Tell Brak and the complexity of its architecture in the Late Chalcolithic certainly testify to the importance of Nagar during this time as well. Tell Brak appears to have been an urban centre within the Mitanni Empire in the 14th century BC (Oates, Oates and McDonald 1997). Monumental architecture like that of the Eye Temple (mid fourth millennium BC), the Naramsin Palace (circa 2200 BC) and the later Mitanni Palace (14th century BC) provide evidence for the significant role Tell Brak must have played throughout its history.
The importance of Tell Brak is probably due first of all to its excellent strategic position: the city lies as a gateway controlling not only access to the fertile Khabur region from southern Mesopotamia but also further access into the resource-rich Anatolian plateau. To the east it guards the trade routes into Iran and further on to Afghanistan from where precious commodities like lapis lazuli made their way into Mesopotamia from very early onwards. The trade routes controlled by Tell Brak were in use for millennia; part of a Roman road and castellum in the vicinity of Tell Brak shows how the same routes were still in use a thousand years after the city of Nagar was finally abandoned. The major route of communication between northern and southern Mesopotamia in the fifth and fourth millennia BC appears to have been via the Tigris coming up from the southern plains, crossing the Jezira south of the Sinjar mountains and going via the Khabur and Balikh rivers down to the Euphrates, along which access to the Anatolian plain was possible (Matthews 2003c:37). Alternatively access to the Khabur plain and the southeastern Anatolian plain was possible going up the Khabur past Tell Brak.
The location of Tell Brak between the fertile plains to the north and the drier steppe lands to the south also meant that the site was situated between population groups involved in different kinds of economies; Tell Brak may have functioned as a centre for the exchange of goods between sedentary farmers and mobile pastoralists (Wilkinson et al 2001:1-2).
Tell Brak is situated about 3 km from the wadi Jaghjagh, a tributary of the Khabur River. Though it has been suggested that the Jaghjagh ran all the way up to Tell Brak in the past (Sommerfield, Archi and Weiss 2004), this has not been finally proved and the presence of a linear feature running up to the tell may be the remains of an artificial channel running towards the Jaghjagh (Wilkinson et al 2001:2). Nevertheless it is likely that the Jaghjagh was used for the transport of goods (Eidem and Warburton 1996:52-3, Wilkinson 1994:503). A late Akkadian period text mentions 40.000 litres of barley being shipped from Nagar to the southern Mesopotamian city of Sippar, suggesting that northern Mesopotamian agricultural produce was collected at Tell Brak and from there transported by donkey or river to the south (Sommerfield, Archi and Weiss 2004).
4.2. Tell Brak during the Late Chalcolithic
The finds at Tell Brak of large public structures and the fact that the site reaches a size of over 130 hectares already during the LC 3-4 suggest that Tell Brak was already a large regional centre within a complex settlement system by the time of contact with southerners, a settlement system that had developed independently in the north during the late fifth and early fourth millennia BC before any contact with southerners in the region.
During the later half of the fourth millennium BC Tell Brak seems to have reached a size almost equal to that of the city of Uruk, the largest of the cities on the southern Mesopotamian alluvial plain. Excavations in area TW at Tell Brak have uncovered large monumental architecture dated to before contact with southern Mesopotamia, as well as a numerical tablet and pictographic dockets from Northern Middle Uruk levels, an earlier date than the one assigned to the pictographic tablets found in the city of Uruk in Eanna level IV and possibly reflecting a local administrative development (Jasim and Oates 1986:360, Joan Oates and David Oates 1997:289-91).
Around the settlement mound eleven satellite sites have been investigated, all dated to the Northern Middle Uruk period (Emberling et al 1999, Emberling and McDonald 2001). It has been suggested that these sites functioned as specialised agricultural sites supplying the main settlement with agricultural produce on an either full-time basis or during dry years when the larger settlements were not able to produce sufficient crops for their inhabitants (Algaze 1993:24). The sites may have either produced the crops or administered and stored crops imported from a greater hinterland. A similar arrangement of smaller sites around a larger settlement is seen at contemporary Hamoukar.
4.2.1. Late Chalcolithic population density and carrying capacity of Tell Brak
Considering the agriculturally marginal situation of Tell Brak and estimating that agriculture in northern Mesopotamia would have needed a larger area of land than in the south, a 10 km radius of agricultural land around Tell Brak should be a reasonable amount of land for the settlement to be self-sufficient, which has also been suggested by Emberling (2003:264). This estimate would also leave room for agricultural land between the many smaller sites in a 20 km radius around Tell Brak that have been noted by recent survey work (Ur et al 2007). Preliminary results from the survey show that from the LC 1-2 135 sites have been observed while 168 sites were dated to LC 3-4/5. Even considering that these sites are unlikely to have been occupied all at the same time the region around Tell Brak was certainly far from empty of settlements during the Late Chalcolithic.
4.3. The excavation areas
4.3.4. Tell 2
(1) A Thousand Years of Farming: Late Chalcolithic Agricultural Practices at Tell Brak in Northern Mesopotamia
(2) Tell Brak Project --- McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research (University of Cambridge)
(3) Origini - XXXIV 2012: Prehistory and protohistory of ancient civilizations (Gangemi Editore SpA International Publishing)
(4) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East: Volume 1 --- Edited by D.T. Potts (2012)
Heartland of Cities: Surveys of Ancient Settlement and Land Use on the Central Floodplain of the Euphrates by Robert McCormick Adams --- University of Chicago Press (1981)
The Uruk Countryside: The Natural Setting of Urban Societies by Robert McCormick Adams and Hans Nissen --- University of Chicago Press (1972)
The Archaeology of Syria: From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies (circa 16,000-300 BC) by Peter Akkermans and Glenn Schwartz --- Cambridge University Press (2003)
The Uruk Expansion: Cross-cultural Exchange in Early Mesopotamian Civilization by Guillermo Algaze et al in Current Anthropology Pages 571-608 (1989)
The Uruk World System. The Dynamics of Expansion of Early Mesopotamian Civilization by Guillermo Algaze --- University of Chicago Press (1993)
The Regional State of Nagar According to the Texts of Ebla by A. Arch in Subartu 4/2:1-15 (1998)
Notes on the prehistoric environment of the Syrian Djezireh by Sytze Bottema in To the Euphrates and Beyond: Archaeological Studies in Honour of Maurits van Loon Edited by O. M. C. Haex et al (1989)
Traditional Crop Husbandry in Southern Iraq 1900-1960 A.D. by M. Charles in Bulletin on Sumerian Agriculture 5:47-64 (1990)
The Uruk Phenomenon: The role of social ideology in the expansion of the Uruk culture during the fourth millennium BC by Paul Collins (2000)
In the Land of Nagar: A Survey around Tell Brak by J. Eidem and D. Warburton in Iraq 58:51-64 (1996)
"Urban Social Transformations and the Problem of the First City" in The Social Construction of Ancient Cities by Geoff Emberling Pages 254-268 (2003)
Excavations at Tell Brak 2000: Preliminary Report by Geoff Emberling and Helen McDonald in Iraq 63:21-54 (2001)
Excavations at Tell Brak 1998: Preliminary Report by Emberling et al in Iraq 61:1-41 (1999)
A 4th-millennium temple/palace complex at Arslantepe/Malatya: North-south relations and the formation of early state societies in the northern regions of Greater Mesopotamia by Marcella Frangipane in Paléorient (1997)
Geoarchaeology in Action: Studies in Soil Micromorphology and Landscape Evolution by Charles French (2003)
Flora of Iraq Volume 1: Introduction to the flora by Evan Guest (1966)
Early tokens and tablets in Mesopotamia: new information from Tell Abada and Tell Brak by Sabah Abboud Jasim and Joan Oates in World Archaeology 17/3:348-362 (1986)
"The effects of irrigation agriculture: Bronze and Iron Age habitation along the Khabur in Eastern Syria" by H. Kühne in Man's Role in the Shaping of the Eastern Mediterranean Landscape Edited by S. Bottema -- G. Entjes-Nieborg -- Willem van Zeist Pages 15-30 (1990)
The Archaeology of Mesopotamia from the Old Stone Age to the Persian Conquest by Seton Lloyd (1984)
Stability and Change: Socio-political development in North Mesopotamia and South-East Anatolia 4000-2700 BC by Alan Lupton (1996)
Excavations at Brak and Chagar Bazar by M. E. L. Mallowan in Iraq 9:1-87 (1947)
Tell Brak and Nagar by Donald Matthews and Jesper Eidem in Iraq 55:201-207 (1993)
"Traces of Early Complexity: Late Fifth to Early Fourth millennia Investigations: the Early Northern Uruk Period" in Excavations at Tell Brak Volume 4: Exploring an Upper Mesopotamian regional centre by Roger Matthews Pages 25-51 (2003c)
Preliminary Archaeobotanical Analysis in the Middle Khabur Valley, Syria and Studies of Socioeconomic Change in the Early Third Millennium BC in Bulletin of the Canadian Society for Mesopotamian Studies by J. McCorriston 29:33-46 (1995)
Farming and herding along the Euphrates: environmental constraint and cultural choice (fourth to second millennia BC) by Naomi Miller in Subsistence and settlement in a marginal environment: Tell es-Sweyhat --- 1989-1995 preliminary report -- Pages 123-132 (1997)
Water use in Syria and Palestine from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age by Robert Miller in World Archaeology 11/3:331-341 (1980)
Naval Intelligence Division Syria: April (Great Britain) 1943
Innovations in Mud-Brick: Decorative and Structural Techniques in Ancient Mesopotamia by David Oates in World Archaeology Pages 388-406 (1990)
"Early irrigation agriculture in Mesopotamia" by David Oates and Joan Oates in Problems in Economic and Social Archaeology Edited by G. Sieveking Pages 109-135 (1976)
Excavations at Tell Brak 1992-93 by David Oates and Joan Oates in Iraq 55:155-199 (1993)
Excavations at Tell Brak Volume 1: The Mitanni and Old Babylonian periods by David Oates -- Joan Oates -- Helen McDonald at the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research at Cambridge (1997)
Excavations at Tell Brak Volume 2: Nagar in the third millennium BC by David Oates -- Joan Oates -- Helen McDonald at the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research at Cambridge (2001)
"The Excavations" in Excavations at Tell Brak Volume 2: Nagar in the third millennium BC by David Oates and Joan Oates at the British School of Archaeology in Iraq --- Pages 15-98 (2001)
An Open Gate: Cities of the Fourth Millennium BC (Tell Brak 1997) by Joan Oates and David Oates Cambridge Archaeological Journal 7:287-307
Early Mesopotamian Urbanism: A New View from the North by Joan Oates et al in Antiquity 81:585-600 (2007)
Ancient Mesopotamia by Susan Pollock Cambridge University Press (1999)
The Evolution of Early Agriculture and Culture in Greater Mesopotamia: A Trial Model by Philip E. Smith and T. C. Young in Population Growth: Anthropological Implications Pages 1-63 (1972)
Why Dada Measured 40,000 liters of Barley from Nagar for Sippar by Walter Sommerfield -- Alonso Archi and Harvey Weiss Poster presented at 4th ICAANE at Berlin Germany (2004)
"Economy, Ritual and Power in Ubaid Mesopotamia" in Chiefdoms and Early States in the Near East: The Organizational Dynamics of Complexity Edited by G. Stein and M. Rothman Pages 35-46 (1994)
Early urban development in the Near East by Jason Ur et al in Science 317: 1188 (2007)
The Origins of Tell Leilan and the Conquest of Space in Third Millennium Mesopotamia in The Origins of Cities in Dry-Farming Syria and Mesopotamia in the Third Millennium B.C. Edited by Harvey Weiss Pages 71-108 (1986)
The Genesis and Collapse of Third Millennium North Mesopotamian Civilization by Harvey Weiss in Science 261:995-1004 (1993)
"Ninevite 5 Periods and Processes" in The Origins of North Mesopotamian Civilization: Ninevite 5 Chronology, Economy, Society --- Edited by Harvey Weiss and E. Rova (2002)
Soil development and early land use in the Jazira region, Upper Mesopotamia by Tony James Wilkinson in World Archaeology Pages 87-103 (1990)
The Structure and Dynamics of Dry-Farming States in Upper Mesopotamia by Tony James Wilkinson in Current Anthropology 35/5:483-520 (1994)
"Geoarchaeology, Landscape and the Region" by Tony James Wilkinson et al in Excavations at Tell Brak --- Volume 2: Nagar in the third millennium BC Pages 1-14 (2001)
"Prestate Political Formations" by Henry Wright in Chiefdoms and Early States in the Near East: The Organizational Dynamics of Complexity Edited by G. Stein and M. Rothman Pages 67-84 (1994)
Cultural Action in the Uruk World by Henry Wright in Uruk Mesopotamia and Its Neighbors Edited by Mitchell Rothman -- Pages 123-147 (2001)
"Vegetational History of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Near East During the Last 20.000 Years" by Willem van Zeist and S. Bottema in Palaeoclimates, Palaeoenvironments and Human Communities in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in Later Prehistory --- Edited by J. L. Bintliff and Willem van Zeist Pages 277-323 (1982)
Archaeobotanical studies in the Levant 4: Bronze Age sites on the north Syrian Euphrates by Willem van Zeist and J. A. H. Bakker-Heeres in Palaeohistoria 27:247-316 (1988)
TW Level 19 mud-brick industrial building (circa 4000 BC)