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Pre-History and Archaeology Glossary

Excerpts and Definitions and Addendums:

This thesis was written between 1975 and 1977 but much of the information I have used was obtained in studies carried out as far back as 1969 when I first went to the Near East to begin research. Throughout I have benefited from the encouragement and advice of my supervisor -- Dame Kathleen Kenyon. She introduced me to Near Eastern Archaeology by inviting me to participate in her excavations in Jerusalem in 1966 (See for instance Excerpt 65 Excavations at Jerusalem by Kathleen Kenyon in Antiquity). She has allowed me to study all the available Neolithic material from her excavations at Jericho and to use whatever information I needed from the records of the excavation. Her firm criticism has clarified my thinking and writing while her generous praise has given welcome support. I owe her much.

I studied under Professor J. D. Evans at the Institute of Archaeology of London University from 1967 to 1969. It was he who stimulated my interest in prehistory and the problems of the Neolithic. His humane approach to the study of prehistory has influenced my own work and I am grateful to him for his continued interest in the progress of my research.

The Queen's College in Oxford awarded me a Randall MacIver Studentship from 1969 to 1971 and the Brittish School of Archaeology in Jerusalem (See Kenyon Institute) made me their Annual Scholar from 1969 to 1970. These two studentships enabled me to spend a year and a half travelling through much of the Near East visiting ancient sites and studying museum collections. During this period I formed a working knowledge of the available archaeological material which I have used in preparing this thesis. In 1973 I was awarded a Gerald Averay Wainwright Research Fellowship in Near Eastern Archaeology at Oxford. This Fellowship has supported me while I prepared the text of the thesis; it has also allowed me to continue work on my other research projects -- in particular my excavation of Tell Abu Hurayra.

I wish to thank the Curators and staff of the Pitt Rivers Museum and Doctor D. A. Roe of the Donald Baden-Powell Quaternary Research Centre for affording me facilities and practical help during the preparation of this thesis.

In all my sojourns in the Levant the Directors and staff of the Departments of Antiquities in each country have readily granted me permission to carry out my research. The Curators of all the major museums have also allowed me full access to the collections of material in their charge. It will be evident that I could have accomplished little without this help. These authorities have also frequently given me much other practical assistance and generous hospitality for which I offer my grateful thanks. Very many other people from high officials to simple peasants and nomads have helped me in my travels so putting me in their debt in ways that cannot be repaid. It is a pleasure to recall and acknowledge these innumerable kindnesses here which have been given so freely in the true tradition of Levantine hospitality.

Many archaeologists and other scholars in several countries have allowed me to study material from their excavations or from collections in their care. Much of this information has been incorporated in the thesis. Others have helped me by analysing samples submitted to them. All have willingly answered my questions and discussed matters of common interest. I wish to thank them all and in particular the following: Professor Emmanuel Anati for showing me his material from Tell Abu Zureiq; Professor and Misses Braidwood for showing me their material from the Amuq Tells (mounds) -- Tell Fakhariyah -- Tabbat Hammam -- and other sites as well as much helpful discussion; J. Cauvin for showing me his excavations at Mureybat and material from the site and for several useful discussions; H. de Contensen for first introducing me to the archaeology of Syria, for allowing me to participate in his excavations at Tell Aswad in 1971, for access to material he has excavated from other sites and for many other kindnesses; L. Copeland for numerous discussions on the prehistory of the Levant and much valuable help and advice given over many years; Doctor R. Dornemann for allowing me to study his material from Khirbet Kum; M. Dunand for permitting me to study material from Byblos, showing me his excavations and much kind hospitality; Professor R. Dyson for allowing me to see material in the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania; Pere H. Fleisch for giving me free access to the collectons in Universite Saint-Joseph in Beirut and for much valuable information; Doctor D. H. French for access to the collections of the Brittish Institute of Archeology in Ankara; Doctor J. B. Hennessey for showing me his material from Teleilat Ghassul and for much other help in Jerusalem; G. Hillman for analysing the plant remains from my excavation at Tell Abu Hureyra; Pere F. Hours for information about his excavations at Jiita, help in the Universite Saint-Joseph in Beirut and many valuable dicsussions; J. Kaplan for allowing me to study material from several of his excavations; L. H. Keeley for examining several tools from Tell Abu Hureyra for traces of microwear; Professor C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky for access to the collections of the Peabody Museum at Harvard University; A. J. Legge for information about his work at Nahal Oren and for examining the faunal remains from Tell Abu Hureyra; Professor A. E. Marks for allowing me to study material from his excavations at Southern Methodist University in Dallas; Professor M. J. Mellink for access to the material from Tarsus kept at Bryn Mawr College; J. Crowfoot Payne for showing me the chipped stone tools from Jericho and for many helpful discussions; M. J. Perrot and his assistants for showing me material from his excavations; Doctor B. Rothenberg for allowing me to see material from sites he has discovered in Sinai; Doctor B. Schroeder for showing me material from his excavations at Nacharini and for information about his research; G. Sieveking and C. Bonsall for access to material from Nahal Oren and other sites in the Brittish Museum; the late Father J. Sira for showing me material from the first excavations at Teleilat Ghassul and surface collections from other sites kept in the Pontifical Biblical Institute in Jerusalem; the late Pere R. de Vaux for allowing me to study material from his excavations at Tell Farah (North) at the Ecole Biblique Saint-Etienne in Jerusalem and for valuable discussions; and S. E. Warren of Bradford University for all his help in our joint project of obsidian analyses ...

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